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JSA-JHA - Importance of Performing Daily

Access Encompass LMS February 2022 Newsletter and please be sure to submit your near misses!

A Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is the breaking down of a job into its component steps and then evaluating each step, looking for hazards. Each hazard is then corrected or a method of worker protection (safe practice or PPE) is identified. Additional requirements for worker training, certification, authorization, etc., may also be identified for the process or job. The final product is a written document….a standard of safe operation for a particular job. A Job Hazard Analysis is one component of a safe job site or environment.

The many benefits of Job Hazard Analysis include:
Set performance standards
Standardize operations based on acceptable safe practices and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Provides a form of training documentation regarding the employee’s knowledge of the job requirements
Comply with OSHA requirements
Reduces injuries
Reduces absenteeism
Increases productivity
Increases morale
Protects employees
Assists in standard-specific compliance (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE], Hazard Communication, etc…..)

Managers, Supervisors, and Principal Investigators are responsible for the development of JHA’s within their work areas. They can use the findings of a job hazard analysis to eliminate and prevent hazards in their workplaces. This is likely to result in fewer worker injuries and illnesses; safer, more effective work methods; reduced workers’ compensation costs; and increased worker productivity. The analysis also can be a valuable tool for training new employees in the steps required to perform their jobs safely. For a job hazard analysis to be effective, management must demonstrate its commitment to safety and health and follow through to correct any uncontrolled hazards identified.

A job hazard analysis will be conducted daily prior to starting work, and signed by all workers involved in the work. Priority should go to the following types of jobs:
Jobs with the highest injury or illness rates;
Jobs with the potential to cause severe or disabling injuries or illness, even if there is no history of previous accidents;
Jobs in which one simple human error could lead to a severe accident or injury;
Jobs that are new to your operation or have undergone changes in processes and procedures; and
Jobs complex enough to require written instructions.

Periodically reviewing your job hazard analysis ensures that it remains current and continues to help reduce workplace accidents and injuries. Even if the job has not changed, it is possible that during the review process you will identify hazards that were not identified in the initial analysis. It is particularly important to review your job hazard analysis if an illness or injury occurs on a specific job. Based on the circumstances, you may determine that you need to change the job procedure to prevent similar incidents in the future. If an employee’s failure to follow proper job procedures results in a “close call,” discuss the situation with all employees who perform the job and remind them of proper procedures. Any time you revise a job hazard analysis, it is important to train all employees affected by the changes in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures adopted. Additionally, modifications to an existing JHA / JSA must be reviewed and resigned by all those involved. Updated JHA / JSA shall be communicated and shared.

What is the difference between a JHA vs JSA document?

JSA stands for "Job Safety Analysis" while JHA stands for "Job Hazard Analysis." Most safety professionals use the terms JSA and JHA interchangeably to describe a technique for improving worker safety when completing hazardous tasks, so is there really a difference between the two? Both a JSA and JHA are a process to identify hazards within jobs and tasks and implement safety controls to reduce the risk of the potential hazards. A risk assessment will review the severity and probability of potential hazards. Most safety professionals utilize risk matrix calculations to assess and prioritize these hazards risks. Ultimately, the processes, end goals, and results of a JSA and JHA are the same, so it makes sense that these terms are frequently used interchangeably.

Several components of the OSHA regulations require a hazard assessment to decide what personal protective equipment may be needed to control the hazards on a job. Additionally, a certification that a hazard assessment has been performed must be kept on record.

However, OSHA does not specifically state that a JSA/JHA is required as part of this hazard assessment. Instead, it's important to know that performing and documenting a JHA or JSA will assist you in complying with the hazard assessment requirements.

In addition, OSHA does strongly recommend and encourages the use of JSAs and JHAs as evidenced by the training materials developed by OSHA.

Inspection employees or any employee may contact the their safety department for guidance in developing or reviewing their job hazard analysis documents. We can also assist with hazard recognition, the recommendation of control measures, and documentation of your findings. You may also engage with the client representative or contractor safety team related to the daily JHA / JSA meeting and document.